3. – Lehrangebote – Lesson – Lecture –

Semantic Web Ontology


Semantic Web Technologies – Intelligence systems in WWW –

XML and the Second-Generation Web.

Tim Berners-Lee vision:  " is the new form of the Web-Content "

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The Semantic Web = a Web with a meaning.


"If HTML and the Web made all the online documents look like one huge book, RDF, schema, and inference languages will make all the data in the world look like one huge database"

Weaving the Web by Tim Berners-Lee with Mark Fischetti.
The original design and ultimate destiny of the WWW, by its inventor.

" Now, miraculously, we have the Web. For the documents in our lives, everything is simple and smooth.
But for data, we are still pre-Web. "

Tim Berners-Lee,   Business Model for the Semantic Web.

What Is The Semantic Web?

The word semantic stands for the meaning of. The semantic of something is the meaning of something.

The Semantic Web is a web that is able to describe things in a way that computers can understand.

Statements are built with syntax rules. The syntax of a language defines the rules for building the language statements.

But how can syntax become semantic?

This is what the Semantic Web is all about. Describing things in a way that computers applications can understand.

The Semantic Web is not about links between web pages.

The Semantic Web describes the relationships between things    (like A is a part of B and Y is a member of  Z) and the
properties of things (like size, weight, age, and price.....)

The principal technologies of the Semantic Web fit into a set of layered specifications.

The current components are:
-  the " Resource Description Framework (RDF) " Core Model,
-  the " RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0:  RDF Schema " language and
-  the " Web Ontology language (OWL) ".

Building on these core components is a standardized query language for RDF enabling the ‘joining’ of decentralized collections of RDF data.

RDF query language and data access protocol.   SPARQL Query Language for RDF.  SPARQL Protocol for RDF.  SPARQL Query Results XML Format.

RDF and OWL are Semantic Web standards that provide a framework for
asset management, enterprise integration and the sharing and reuse of data on the Web.

These languages all build on the foundation of   URIs,   XML, and  XML namespaces.

The goal of the Semantic Web initiative is as broad as that of the Web:
to create a universal medium for the exchange of data.

It is envisaged to
•  smoothly interconnect personal information management,
•  enterprise application integration, and
•  the global sharing of commercial, scientific and cultural data.

Facilities to put machine-understandable data on the Web are quickly becoming a high priority for many organizations, individuals and communities.

The Web can reach its full potential only if it becomes a place where data can be shared and processed by automated tools as well as by people.

For the Web to scale, tomorrow's programs must be able to share and process data even when these programs have been designed totally independently.

These standard formats for data sharing span application, enterprise, and community boundaries -
all of these different types of 'user' can share the same information, even if they don't share the same software.

This announcement marked the emergence of the Semantic Web as a broad-based, commercial-grade platform for data on the Web.

The deployment of these standards in commercial products and services signals the transition of Semantic Web technology from
what was largely a research and advanced development project over the last five years, to more practical technology deployed in mass market tools
that enables more flexible access to structured data on the Web.

W3C - Semantic Web - Activity Statement.

The Semantic Web is NOT a very fast growing technology.

" For the processing of the knowledge available in the Semantic Web are inference engine necessary. "
Inference engines deduce new knowledge from already specified knowledge.
Two different approaches are applicable here:
(1)logic based inference engines and (2) specialized algorithms (Problem Solving Methods).


top1. Target group.

Entrepreneurs, professionnels and managers.

top 2. Aim of the course

The World Wide Web is presently a very large collection of mainly statistical documents, a large database without logic.

More and more businesses are completed over the Internet.

One of the most frequent problems is not only the availability of information, (then the Web-presence alone produced no marketing success yet), but rather also the intelligent settlement of the exchange of information, (B2B; B2C; Supply Chain Management, CRM,...etc.) electronic managements of strategic processes.

The present extension of the WWW is going mainly through meaningless associations.

Good businesses intelligence for Internet businesses or the generation of aim orientated offers for the E-COMMERCE, next to the simple needed information; extraction and interpretation of a problem are the technologies, which are available today.

Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the WWW, established the vision of a "Semantic Web", intelligent use of the WWW for the transmission and the exchange of contents that are intelligible also for machines and people.

The Semantic Web support automatic services, being based on the semantic descriptions.

Knowledge can be mediated only with the help of semantic

The lecture comprises the most important drafts of the semantic Web, introduce the modelling - and analysis technologies as well and it gives an overview about the present developments

top3. Content of the course

Background knowledge about Web resources  –KEYWORDS– (concerning the meaning and the content):

top 4. Internet & WWW - Architecture of the WORLD WIDE WEB


© Oxford Brookes University 2002
Birth of the World Wide Web  (www)


" KLICKEN Sie auf das BILD / Click on the Picture "
Birth of the Internet plaque at Stanford University

Today - Architecture of the WORLD WIDE WEB


Documents available from the Web or from any digital representation constitute a significant SOURCE of KNOWLEDGE to be represented, handled and queried.

top5. Course duration

Ca. ... Std. Deeper involvement through private conversation is possible.
Reference: The advisor Dipl. Ing. Johann Magori -CAE system specialist- member of the engineer chamber in Hessen. I would like to clarify through this presentation the term or Semantic Web as a concept for numerous standards, technologies and ideas for the questions concerning the transmission, storage, processing of data, and clarify special outlooks of the Semantic Web.

- Private information is practically the source of every large modern fortune -

Oscar Wilde "

top 6. Referenzen « The SEMANTIC WEB. »

Short References  « The SEMANTIC WEB »  : Introductions and Overviews. / Applications and Initiatives

  • [1] The Semantic Web.(Tim Berners-Lee, James Hendler, Ora Lassila)

  • [1-A] Hypermedia and the Semantic Web: A Research Agenda.(Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Lynda Hardman, Lloyd Rutledge.)

  • [2] From Aristotle to the 'semantic web'.(Alan Gilchrist CURA Consortium , London, UK)

  • [3] Thesauri, taxonomies and ontologies - Some definitions.(Oxford English Dictionary - OED )

  • [4] Thesauri, taxonomies and ontologies - an etymological note.(Alan Gilchrist CURA Consortium , London, UK)

  • [5] The Semantic Web - on the respective Roles of XML and RDF.( Stefan Decker, Sergey Melnik, Ian Horrocks.......)

  • [6] A Layered Approach to Information Modeling and Interoperability on the Web. ( Sergey Melnik, Stefan Decker: Database Group-Stanford University)

  • [7] Adding formal semantics to the Web – building on top of RDF Schema. ( Jeen Broekstra, Michel Klein, Stefan Decker, Dieter Fensel, Ian Horrocks )

  • [8] Beyond RDF(S): The Ontology Perspective for the Semantic Web.( Prof. Dr. Rudi Studer, Institute AIFB, University of Karlsruhe)

  • [9] Ontology Learning for the Semantic Web.( Dr. Alexander Maedche, Prof. Dr. Steffen Staab, University of Karlsruhe, Ontoprise GmbH. Karlsruhe, Germany)

  • [10] OIL: An Ontology Infrastructure for the Semantic Web.(Dieter Fensel and Frank van Harmelen, Ian Horrocks, Deborah L. McGuinness,...)

  • [11] An Annotation Framework for the Semantic Web.(Prof. Dr. Steffen Staab, Dr. Alexander Maedche, Dr. Siegfried Handschuh)

  • [12] NOMOS: A Semantic Web Software Framework for Annotation of Multimodal Corpora.(John Niekrasz, Alexander Gruenstein)

  • [13] The Semantic Web: KR's Worst Nightmare?(Professor James Hendler presentation)

  • [14] Semantic Community Web Portals.(Steffen Staab,  Juergen Angele,  Stefan Decker,  Michael Erdmann,....)

  • [15] Semantic Interoperability on the Web.( Jeff Heflin,   James Hendler,   University of Maryland.)

  • [xx]     •   •   •    •  

  • [xx]     •   •   •    •  

  • [0] Timeline of Computing History.( Bob Carlson, Angela Burgess, and Christine Miller; IEEE Computer Society)

  • [01] History of the Web.(© Oxford Brookes University 2002)

  • [A] Generating answers! – in 21th Century. –


  • [C]COOPERATE PLUS.( LEONARDO DA VINCI" Community Vocational Training Action Programme "e-Learning")

  • [D] W3C - Short References -


The SEMANTIC WEB - Introductions and Overviews. / Applications and Initiatives.


arrw08_26a [A]

Generating answers! – in 21th Century. –



A federated STEP based - Systems Engineering -

Semantic Web based Services/Semantic Community Knowledge Web Portals EU/SME.


 Digital Library and Grid technology "e-Learning" :

" COOPERATE PLUS"  (MS-Word Format)

"LEONARDO DA VINCI" Community Vocational Training Action Programme -

in the field of IT & C and CAD/CAM for young professionals to develop teleworking projects.



[D]W3C - Short References :

  • W3C –  Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)
  • W3C –  XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition)
  • W3C –  XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Third Edition )
  • W3C –  XHTML™ 2.0
  • W3C –  HTML 5 –  A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML.
  • W3C –  Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Second Edition)
  • W3C –  W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 1: Structures
  • W3C –  W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 2: Datatypes.
  • W3C –  Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 1 (CSS 2.1) Specification
  • W3C –  Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 HTML Specification. Version 1.0.
  • W3C –  Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 3.0
  • W3C –  Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 Specification.
  • W3C –  Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Tiny 1.2 Specification.
  •     •   •   •   •  
  •     •   •   •   •  

The European Community has defined a new strategic goal:
- to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. -

"European Council - March 2000-Lisbon / Barcelona 2002"

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